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时间:2017年11月18日 23:44:45

To conduct an experiment, 20/20 hired actors——some great looking, some not——and put them in situations to gauge how often the "lookers" would get preferential treatment.In the first test, we put two women next to cars without gas in Atlanta. The women wore the same outfit.Both Michelle and Tracey stood helplessly by cars with their hoods up. For the average-looking Michelle, a few pedestrians stopped but only made suggestions as where she could walk to get gasoline. But for the beautiful Tracey, cars came screeching to a halt. More than a dozen cars stopped and six people went to get Tracey gas.The two actresses helped with our second test, at an Atlanta shopping mall where both women set up a table and sold calendars and teddy bears to raise money for charity. Overall, it looked as if both women were doing well with their sales. Then we counted the money and found Tracey collected 50 percent more.What if we tested something requiring qualifications, like getting a job? Looks shouldn't matter then but would they?20/20 hired two women to apply for jobs. The clearest difference between them was looks while they shared similar education and work experience backgrounds. To match them up more closely, we rewrote their résumés to match.Donia, our more attractive female applicant, and her counterpart, Amy, both had been secretaries and saleswomen. A consultant trained them so their behavior matched.Hidden cameras captured interviewers being warmer and friendlier to the better looking applicants and being less friendly to the other applicants. With Amy and Donia, for example, one job interviewer told Amy employees got a 45-minute lunch break but with Donia the interviewer said there was a flexible policy about lunch. Who got the job offer? Donia. Amy never even got a call back."It's a non-conscious process," said Tom Cash, a psychologist at Old Dominion University. "They assume that more attractive people have an array of valued characteristics."We should add the bias of "lookism" to sexism and racism. It's just as bad but we don't need a federal program. 为了做一个试验,"20/20"节目雇用了演员。有些人容貌出众,有些人却不是。但把演员们放在特定环境下,看看“漂亮人”是如何常常得到优待的。在第一次试验中,在亚特兰大,我们让两位女演员穿戴一样,分别站在没有汽油的车旁。Michelle和Tracey引擎罩打开着,绝望无助地站在车旁。相貌平平的Michelle只能让几位行人驻足,但他们也只是为她指出如何加油的路,而美貌Tracey的待遇却大不相同。许多车子为她猛然刹车,一打以上的车主停车,6个人要为Tracey加油。两位女演员又帮助我们做了第二个试验。在一家亚特兰大购物中心,两人都设摊慈善义卖日历和玩具熊。从表面上看,她们卖得一样好,可是数钱时却发现,Tracey的收入要高出50%.如果我们实验某些需要资格的事情,比如应聘,结果会如何呢?容貌会起到什么作用呢?"20/20"节目组雇用了两位女人参加应聘,她们有相似的教育和工作经验背景,但容貌却大不相同。为了使她们更接近,我们改写了她们的履历。Donia是我们非常迷人的女求职者,与她搭档的Amy,两人都曾当过秘书和销售人员。一位顾问专门对她们进行了训练,使她们的举止相同。暗藏的摄像机捕获了主聘人员对相貌好看的应聘者十分热情和友好,而对其它应征者则不友好。例如,招聘人员对Amy说,雇员只有45分钟午饭休息时间,而却对Donia说,午饭时间是有弹性的。谁得到工作了?当然是Donia.Amy则再也没有接到回复电话。Old Dominion大学的心理学家Tom Cash说:“这是一个无意识的过程,他们推测漂亮的人有更多富有价值的品质。”我们应该在性别歧视和种族歧视之后再添一个“容貌歧视”,尽管它与前两者一样可恶,但对此并不需要联邦立法。 /200807/43150

How might you drag a good writer's work down to the level of a lesser scribe? Try the spell-check button.A study at the University of Pittsburgh indicates spell-check software may level the playing field between people with differing levels of language skills, hampering the work of writers and editors who place too much trust in the software.In the study, 33 undergraduate students were asked to proof a one-page business letter half of them using Microsoft Word with its squiggly red and green lines underlining potential errors. The other half did it the old-fashioned way, using only their heads.Without grammar or spelling software, students with higher SAT verbal scores made, on average, five errors, compared with 12.3 errors for students with lower scores. Using the software, students with higher verbal scores ing the same page made, on average, 16 errors, compared with 17 errors for students with lower scores.Dennis Galletta, a professor of information systems at the Katz Business School, said spell-checking software is so sophisticated that some have come to trust it too thoroughly. "It's not a software problem, it's a behavior problem," he said.Microsoft technical specialist Tim Pash said grammar and spelling technology is meant to help writers and editors, not solve all their problems. The study found the software helped students find and correct errors in the letter, but in some cases they also changed phrases or sentences flagged by the software as grammatically suspicious, even though they were correct. /200812/58753

Serena usually makes little variation on her traditional theme (long and wavy) but she glammed it up for a couple episodes. Which high-powered, big bang does a bang-up job?S总是时不时地在她标志性的长波浪发型基础上做点小变化,其中有几集的造型格外出挑。上面俩出格造型你喜欢哪个呢? /200906/75922

Success belongs to the persevering!坚持就是胜利。内容来自: /201107/145542

摘要:美国人上下班往返时间更长、距离更远Americans commute longer, farther than everDave Givens drives 370 miles to work and back every day and considers his seven-hour commute the best answer to balancing his work with his personal life.The winner of a nationwide contest to find the commuter, with the longest trek, Givens is one of millions of people who are commuting longer and farther than ever before.Studies show Americans spend more time than ever commuting, and for a growing number, getting to work takes more than an hour. In the most recent U.S. Census Bureau study, 2.8 million people have so-called extreme commutes, topping 90 minutes.Givens, a 46-year-old electrical engineer, has an extreme commute between home in Mariposa, California, and his job in San Jose. He leaves home before dawn and returns after dark.His trip landed him first place among almost 3,000 entries in the search for America’s longest commute, sponsored by automotive services provider Midas Inc. and announced last week. But as harrowing or tedious as Givens’ trip may sound, he says it's the way to keep the home and job he loves."I have the balance right now," Givens said. "I could do similar jobs closer, but not with the work reward and job satisfaction I have. And I could live closer, but I wouldn't have the lifestyle that I desire.""To me, this is not that long a commute," he added. "It's just something I do to go to work."Suburb-to-suburb commutingLonger commutes frequently involve people who live in one suburb and work in another, said Alan Pisarski, author of "Commuting in America."Such a pattern tends to begin with companies moving out of a city to a suburb, enticing workers to move to less-expensive outer suburbs, he said. "People see this as an opportunity to go farther away,"he said.Such a move may provide more affordable housing or better schools. Even high fuel costs — Givens spends about 5 a week on gasoline — can pay off in a better quality of life, Pisarski said.Doreen DeJesus rides a bus from her home in Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania, across New Jersey to her job in Manhattan.The payoff is a house in the country, she said."It's a matter of getting away from the hustle and bustle of the city," said DeJesus, 37. "It's not an easy thing, but most days it's really worth it."My boss thinks I'm nuts6," she added.Studies show 7.6 percent of U.S. commuters traveled more than an hour to work in 2004, the most recent data available, up from 6 percent in 1990. The average one-way commute grew by 13 percent to 25.5 minutes between 1990 and 2000.In 1990, only in New York state did more than 10 percent of workers spend more than an hour to get to work, Pisarski said. Now that situation can be found in New Jersey, Maryland, Illinois and California as well, he said.Congestion worsens Added to long commutes is increased congestion, according to the Texas Transportation Institute's 2005 Urban Mobility Report. Commuters typically spent 47 hours a year in traffic jams, up from 40 hours a decade earlier, the study showed. "That's the time wasted above and beyond just being able to make the trip," said David Schrank, co-author of the report. But the trips can be worthwhile, said Kay Phillips who works in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 164 miles from her home in Granite Falls. "I really love what I do, so I don't mind," she said. While Givens spends much of his commute listening to the radio, especially traffic reports, Philips, 52, uses her five-hour commute in her own way — she prays. "I say a long prayer starting out every morning for everybody, and it gives you quite a bit of time to do that," she said. /200905/69415


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